The Council for the Mathematical Sciences (CMS) was established in 2001 by the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications (IMA), the London Mathematical Society (LMS) and the Royal Statistical Society (RSS). The CMS comprises representatives and observers from the mathematical sciences community, including the Presidents and Chief Executives of these three societies.

The CMS provides an authoritative and objective body that exists to develop, influence and respond to UK policy issues that affect the mathematical sciences in higher education and research, and therefore the UK economy and society in general.

In October 2006, Professor David Wallace CBE FRS FREng was appointed as the first independent Chair of the CMS.

In 2008 the Edinburgh Mathematical Society and the Operational Research Society became Members of the CMS.

Professor Sir Ian Diamond FBA, FRSE, FAcSS took over from Professor Sir Adrian Smith FRS as independent chair of the Council for the Mathematical Sciences in September 2018.